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What is Beta glucan and Why is MG Beta glucan a Premium Form in NSC IMMUNITION Products

Beta 1,3/1,6-d glucan is in science known as a nutritional Biological Response Modifier classified as a long-chained polysaccharide. In plain words that means Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan potentiates your immune cells as a safe and nutritional substance to better offer a defense to that seeking to harm you and your body. The MG Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is Major U.S. Medical School Researched and Formulated.

Many competitors use deceiving marketing schemes in Beta glucan use with misleading information and comparisons. Weight, percentage and volume of Beta glucan in a capsule Do NOT Determine a Beta glucan's ability to nutritionally normalize your immune cells! What does? The U.S. Patent 6,476,003 evaluating MG Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan describes a valid scientific test and results:

"The data demonstrates a factor of two increase in the production of NO [Nitric Oxide] from comparison of the untreated glucan [competitor glucans] to the treated glucan [MG Beta Glucan]; from 275 .mu.M to 600 .mu.M. The measurement of NO [Nitric Oxide] production is indicative of an oxidative burst that kills and/or destroys the ingested microbes and/or particles [bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, toxins] by the macrophage. ... The greater generation and/or production of NO demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage with a small particle size glucan which is indicative of an activity level of an immune system."

Increased nitric oxide production in the body's immune cells kills more pathogens (fungi, viruses, bacteria, etc) and the increase in nitric oxide produced by oral intake of a given beta glucan is a true scientific measure of how effective a beta glucan is in potentiating/normalizing the immune response.

To repeat, a major component in the killing of pathogens is production of nitric oxide - not the weight or volume of beta glucan in a capsule - that determines the effectiveness of beta glucan. Skip the marketing hype and use common sense that tells us a small amount of glucan in small particle size that is effective in nutritionally promoting nitric oxide burst is better than a huge amount of glucan taken in large particle size that is minimally effective.

Particle size is also an important factor in Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan effectiveness. In the Beta glucan study, "Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators," from the Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Kenneth W. Hunter, Jr., ScD and Ruth A. Gault, PhD. reported research findings:

"We believe that the size of a particle is one factor influencing phagocytic [microbe ingestion] efficiency by macrophages. …the number of macrophages actively phagocytosing [ingesting microbes] is affected by the particle size of the glucan. This would suggest that, in vivo, a greater number of macrophages may be activated and thus would provide an enhanced immune response. …these data do indicate that glucan particle size is an important factor in the production of nitric oxide.

MG glucan, as a nonaggregated microparticulate, is demonstrated to structurally minimize reaggregation when going through the human digestive process and being exposed to water (hydration), and thus delivers a nutritionally enhanced immune cell response. Quoting from the U.S. Patent 6,476,003:

"As a glucan re-aggregates [after hydration in the digestive process] into particles of greater than one micron in diameter, it appears to pass through an animal or human digestive system without substantially complete absorption. ... As the glucan re-aggregates to a size of greater than one micron in diameter, some of the beneficial effect of the glucan is not achieved because the macrophage receptors are not activated as readily by glucan greater than one micron in diameter because the receptor size on corresponding cells and molecules that accept the glucan is generally about one micron in size.

...The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan's ability to activate the immune system."

"Compared with the aggregated form of B-glucan, the B-glucan microparticles ... are more effective at enhancing phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages following oral administration. Although both aggregated [5-100-µ micron diameter] and microparticulate [1-2-µ micron diameter] glucans enhanced peritoneal macrophage activation when administered orally in mice, the microparticulate glucan was significantly better than the aggregated form."

Based on this peer-reviewed and scientifically accepted standard of measurement of immune potentiation capabilities, NSC IMMUNITION MG Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan that significantly resist reaggregation excels in nutritionally promoting the nitric oxide burst in immune cells researched.


Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan has decades of major Medical School research and published articles demonstrating and describing immune response enhancement summarized at as a non-commercial information website.

Technically, MG glucan is a nutritional biological response modifier defined as a long chained polysaccharide named Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is 100% Beta 1,3/1,6d glucan classified as a baker's yeast extraction without chemical composition alteration. What is unique to MG glucan? NSC's Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is a microparticulate glucan (MG) that is processed without chemical composition alteration to be nonaggregated, meaning an almost uniform 1-2 micron particle size virtually unaffected by water, that in other glucans causes clumping after going through the digestive process.

Why is "clumping" bad? Clumping results in an effective large globular particle size that inhibits immune response intake in volume and timing - while nonaggregated MG glucan yields an enhanced intake and thus potentiation. Competing glucans reaggregate or clump in the digestive process.

U.S. Medical School Research reported in U.S. Patent 6,476,003 with Frank M. Jordan, Kenneth Hunter, Jr. and Ruth Gault as Inventors, demonstrates why reaggregation of beta glucan reduces immune response enhancement in competitor products:

"As a glucan re-aggregates [after hydration in the digestive process] into particles of greater than one micron in diameter, it appears to pass through an animal or human digestive system without substantially complete absorption. ... As the glucan re-aggregates to a size of greater than one micron in diameter, some of the beneficial effect of the glucan is not achieved because the macrophage receptors are not activated as readily by glucan greater than one micron in diameter because the receptor size on corresponding cells and molecules that accept the glucan is generally about one micron in size.

...The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan's ability to activate the immune system."

MG Beta glucan is a pure isolate extracted from Baker's Yeast without altering chemical composition taken orally.

Be aware Beta glucan comes in many forms and degrees of quality, similar to automobiles. To avoid confusion in determining the quality of various glucan products, go to the science. That science demonstrates MG Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan in NSC Immunition Products is effective in nutritionally normalizing your immune response.

U.S. Patent 6,476,003 determined MG beta glucan will not reaggregate (clump back together) when rehydrated, or exposed to water in the digestive process.

When a Beta glucan particles reaggregate, or clump, to a larger size in microns after going through the digestive process, it loses effectiveness in the ingestion process into the body through the immune macrophage and dendritic cells that have receptors for the beta glucan approximately 1-2 microns in size.

The MG glucan pictured on the left is 1-2 microns and virtually uniform in size compared to competitor glucans pictured to the right; both of the competitor glucans being subject to clumping or reaggregation, even if initially micronized prior to digestion.

Competitor glucans are not protected against reaggregation, as are the MG Beta glucan particles. As a result, the MG Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan particles contribute nutritionally to normalizing the immune macrophage cells.

The result is NSC IMMUNITION MG glucan nutritionally appears to promote a normalization of the immune response in the body to aid nutritionally in winning your body war.

For those seeking scientific confirmation, an Abstract related to Microparticulate glucan as a Vaccine Adjuvant authored by Kenneth W. Hunter, Jr. ScD from the University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine, Dept of Microbiology stated,

"Nutritional Supply Corporation has recently developed a novel microparticulate form of beta-1,3-(D)-glucan (MG) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae...The uniform 1-2 micron diameter MG is rapidly enocytosed by APC's (macrophages and dendritic cells), and most importantly, upregulates the expression of B7 family co-stimulatory molecules in the APC's. Without co-stimulation, APC's not only fail to activate T lymphocites, but they may actually induce an unresponsive state called tolerance."

APC's are antigen presenting cells which are essential to a proper immune response wherein T Cells are properly activated. "Enocytosis" is the process of cellular ingestion in which the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the cell. MG Beta1,3/1,6 glucan is demonstrated by U.S. Medical School research to not only be ingested or enocytosed by the immune cells, but to nutritionally promote essential steps in the immune response process.

Competitor Misinformation

Volume and Weight and "Active Links" Do Not Measure Potentiation of a Beta Glucan

Competitive Beta glucan products in marketing often compare weight of the Beta glucan in milligrams per capsule (see one such bogus chart in this section), or the percentage of beta glucan in a capsule (volume), including filler. The purpose of this deceptive and misleading comparison as it relates to immune potentiation is to attempt by still another marketing trick that the competitor product is more effective than MG Beta glucan in NSC IMMUNITION Products.

A product can be 100% Beta 1,3/1,6 d glucan processed as an isolate of baker's yeast without altering chemical composition, as is the case with MG Beta glucan; but still be a small percentage of the volume or weight of total ingredients in a capsule, including filler. The important factor is not the amount or percentage of glucan in the capsule, but the ability of the glucan in the capsule to nutritionally normalize the immune cells.

If weight and volume determined power and effectiveness, we would fight wars with rocks instead of bullets, drive garbage trucks instead of sleek automobiles and have the morbidly obese represent us in Olympic events instead of lean and fit athletes!

When you apply for a job is your weight and the space you take up in a room what determines your qualifications for the job? Of course not because you are judged on your ability to perform the job tasks - not weight or volume.

In other words, these competitor graphs are pure bunk when falsely alleging a comparison of various glucans in evaluating abilities to normalize applicable immune cells. You don't weigh your car to see how many horsepower are produced by the engine! Using meaningful, not bogus comparisons, Science demonstrates NSC MG Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan is an effective immune cell normalizer.

"Purity" is often erroneously represented as the measure of effectiveness as defined in these competitor sites as the percentage of a capsules ingredients that is comprised of beta glucan. Effectiveness is instead a function of the quality of the amount of beta glucan in the capsule; whether 3 mg or 3,000 mg. As an example, a competitor glucan using a 408 mg type 0 capsule could fill it with 400 mg of substandard beta glucan and, under this erroneous measurement concept, claim 98% purity but be lacking in ability to normalize the immune response. The NSC product with 3 mg would show only 0.75% purity, when defined as the percentage of Beta glucan in the capsule (see the graph with this type of misleading comparison above), but be significantly more effective in normalizing the immune response.

The correct analysis would evaluate immune response potentiation created by the 400 mg of substandard glucan compared to the 3 mg of MG Beta glucan. MG Beta glucan composition is continuously evaluated in accord with government requirements to assure the absence of potentially harmful yeast proteins, mold and other contaminants. But "purity" as a factor does not measure positive immune cells normalization capabilities. As an example, pure arsenic will kill you! Purity relates only to a percentage of content and not to ability to perform.

It is important to know Beta 1,3/1,6-d glucan is a single composition extracted from the cell wall of baker's yeast; not two glucans blended together. The true "active linkage" of a beta glucan ingredient does not relate to the amount of glucan as a percentage of total volume in the capsule, but the structure of the actual beta glucan in the capsule, whether 3 mg, 10 mg, 40mg or 400mg. The MG Beta glucan "active linkage" is approximately 92-94% Beta 1,3-d glucan and 6-8% Beta 1,6 glucan with trace chitin. But this structure, while important, is not what determines effectiveness in contributing to normalization of the immune response and not what differentiates the MG beta glucan as a unique Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan in nutritional immune response potentiation.


An average adult should take 10 mg or less daily of high quality MG Beta glucan. NSC includes 3 mg per capsule in the NSC-24 Original Formula suggested for daily use, particularly with the NSC Gold Multiple Vitamin and Mineral formula. For suppressed or compromised immune response situations, the NSC-100 Extra Strength Formula is suggested with 10 mg per capsule. Does science back up these suggested amounts of MG beta glucan? Yes!

The Peer-reviewed article on Microparticulate Beta Glucan research in the prestigious "Letters in Applied Microbiology," reports small particle glucan in minimal doses is "superior in immune potentiation." In fact, Medical School research demonstrates a dosage of 10 mg of MG glucan in a 75-kg (165 lb) human equates to an effective amount of MG Beta glucan to meaningfully normalize the immune response nutritionally (the human dosage was extrapolated from the minuscule animal experiment amount of MG Beta glucan of 0·1 mg kg -1 ), as reported in the peer-reviewed research presented in "Letters in Applied Microbiology" as follows:

"Therefore, we compared the ability of orally administered microparticulate and aggregated beta-glucan preparations given at 0·1 mg kg -1 daily for 14 d to enhance peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis. Note that this dosage is equivalent to a 10-mg capsule of beta-glucan given orally to a 75-kg human. ...the same dose of microparticulate -glucan is better able [2.18 times better!] to enhance macrophage phagocytosis than aggregated -glucan." Note: "Aggregated glucan" refers to all competitor beta glucan oral dietary supplements that reaggregate during digestion.

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PUBLISHED MEDICAL SCHOOL RESEARCH EXCERPTS ON MG BETA GLUCAN - Complete research text is available by clicking on the research reference.

An article in the peer-reviewed scientific publication, "Immunology Letters 93," pages 71-78 states in part with regard to MG Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan (MG) contained in NSC Immunition products,

"Beta-1,3-()-glucan from a variety of biological sources has been shown to enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses to a variety of antigens, infectious agents, and tumors. We discovered that MG upregulated B7.2 mRNA expression and enhanced the surface membrane expression of B7.2 glycoprotein. ...The up-regulation of B7.1 and B7.2 co-stimulatory molecule expression demonstrated in this study suggests that MG can generate the second signal needed for T cell activation. ...MG may therefore serve as an adjuvant, upregulating critical co-stimulatory responses, while at the same time upregulating cell surface molecules on macrophages that can down regulate T cell responses..."

The article is authored by Kenneth W. Hunter, Jr. and Sally duPre of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno and Doug Redelman of the Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno.

Beta Glucan and Immune Response Research continues on NSC-24 Immunition. The best is getting better based on science derived from research guided by leading Immunologists in the world.

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